The Lessons of Mumbai (Occasional Paper (Rand Corporation))


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Think tanks include:.

Key projects: Preparation of the National human development report for Uzbekistan, Sociological "portrait" of the Uzbek businessman, Preparation of an analytical report on export procedures optimization in Uzbekistan, various industry and marketing researches in Uzbekistan, Tajikistan, and Turkmenistan. In Taiwan had 58 think tanks, the 25th most in the world.

Private sources fund about 20 to 30 "independent" Australian think tanks. However, in the past decade [ which?

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In recent years [ when? Commercial think-tanks like the Gartner Group, Access Economics, the Helmsman Institute, and others provide additional insight which complements not-for-profit organisations such as CEDA , the Australian Strategic Policy Institute , and the Australian Institute of Company Directors to provide more targeted policy in defence, program governance, corporate governance and similar. Brussels hosts most of the European Institutions, hence a large number of international think tanks are based there.

Bulgaria has a number of think tanks providing expertise and shaping policies, including Institute of Modern Politics. Finland has several small think tanks that provide expertise in very specific fields. Notable think tanks include:. In addition to specific independent think tanks, the largest political parties have their own think tank organizations. This is mainly due to support granted by state for such activity.


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The corporate world has focused their efforts to central representative organization Confederation of Finnish Industries , which acts as think tank in addition to negotiating salaries with workers unions. Each of these organizations often release forecasts concerning the national economy. The primary goals of IFRI are to develop applied research in the field of public policy related to international issues, and foster interactive and constructive dialogue between researchers, professionals, and opinion leaders.

There are also a number of pro-business think tanks, notably the Paris-based Fondation Concorde. Terra Nova is an independent left-leaning think tank, although it is nevertheless considered to be close to the Socialists. It works on producing reports and analyses of current public policy issues from a progressive point of view, and contributing to the intellectual renewal of social democracy. Only French Think Tank mentioned in the list "Think Tank to watch" of the Global Go To Think Tank Index Report [61] GenerationLibre is a French think-tank created by Gaspard Koenig in , independent from all political parties, which aims at promoting freedoms in France, in terms of fundamental rights, economics and societal issues.

GenerationLibre is described as being able to connect to the right on pro business freedom and regulations issues but also to the left on issues such as basic income, gay marriage and the legalization of marijuana. In Germany all of the major parties are loosely associated with research foundations that play some role in shaping policy, but generally from the more disinterested role of providing research to support policymakers than explicitly proposing policy.

Atlantic Community is an independent, non-partisan and non-profit organization set up as a joint project of Atlantische Initiative e. The Institute for Media and Communication Policy deals with media-related issues. Transparency International is a think tank on the role of corporate and political corruption in international development. In Greece there are many think tanks, also called research organisations or institutes.

While think tanks are not widespread in Latvia, as opposed to single issue advocacy organizations, there are several noticeable institutions in the Latvian think tank landscape:. There are several think tanks that are established and operate under the auspices of Universities, such as:. All major political parties in the Netherlands have state-sponsored research foundations that play a role in shaping policy.

The Netherlands furthermore hosts the Netherlands Institute of International Relations Clingendael , or Clingendael Institute, an independent think tank and diplomatic academy which studies various aspects of international relations. There is a large pool of think-tanks in Poland on a wide variety of subjects. Besides the international think tanks present in the surrounding countries as well with Open Society Foundations being the most notable one Slovakia has a host of its own think tanks as well.

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Since some of the Slovak think tanks are perceived to be associated with right-wing and liberal parties of Slovakia with the perception being particularly strong among Slovak nationalists , [66] findings and proposals made by these organizations are generally resented or ignored by left-wing supporters and nationalists.

The Elcano Royal Institute was created in following the example of the Royal Institute of International Affairs Chatham House in the UK, although it is closely linked to and receives funding from the government in power. Timbro is a free market think tank and book publisher based in Stockholm. Think tanks based within Switzerland include:. There are more than registered think tanks in Ukraine. For example:. In Britain, think tanks play a similar role to the United States, attempting to shape policy, and indeed there is some cooperation between British and American think tanks.

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For example, the London-based think tank Chatham House and the Council on Foreign Relations were both conceived at the Paris Peace Conference, and have remained sister organisations. The Bow Group , founded in , is the oldest centre-right think tank and many of its members have gone on to serve as Members of Parliament or Members of the European Parliament. According to research done by the University of Pennsylvania, there are a total of 12 think tanks in Azerbaijan. The Center was established in CESD focuses on policy advocacy and reform, and is involved with policy research and capacity building.

The Economic Research Center ERC is a policy-research oriented non-profit think tank established in with a mission to facilitate sustainable economic development and good governance in the new public management system of Azerbaijan. The Center for Strategic Studies under the President of Azerbaijan is a governmental, non-profit think tank founded in It focusses on domestic and foreign policy. Turkish think tanks are relatively new.

There are at least 20 think tanks in the country, both independent and supported by government.

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Many of them are sister organizations of political parties, universities or companies some are independent and others are supported by government. Most Turkish think tanks provide research and ideas, yet they play less important roles in policy making than American think tanks. Turksam, Tasam and the Journal of Turkish Weekly are the leading information sources.

ESAM has strong international relationships, especially with Muslim countries and societies. In The Republic of Turkey, two presidents, four prime ministers, various ministers, many members of the parliament, and numerous mayors and bureaucrats have been members of ESAM. Established in , TESEV is an independent non-governmental think-tank, analyzing social, political and economic policy issues facing Turkey. TESEV has raised issues about Islam and democracy, combating corruption, state reform, and transparency and accountability.


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  7. TESEV serve as a bridge between academic research and policy-making. Its core program areas are democratization, good governance, and foreign policy. Canada has many notable think tanks listed in alphabetical order.

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    Each has specific areas of interest with some overlaps. As the classification is most often used today, the oldest American think tank is the Carnegie Endowment for International Peace , founded in The Great Depression and its aftermath spawned several economic policy organizations, such as the National Planning Association , the Tax Foundation , [81] and the Committee for Economic Development Think tanks help shape both foreign and domestic policy.

    They receive funding from private donors, and members of private organizations. Recently in response to scrutiny about think tanks appearing to have a "conflict of interest" or lack transparency, executive vice president, Martin S. Indyk of Brookings Institution — the "most prestigious think tank in the world" [85] — admitted that they had "decided to prohibit corporations or corporate-backed foundations from making anonymous contributions.

    One of the cases the journalists cited was Brookings, where scholars paid by a seemingly independent think tank "push donors' agendas amplifying a culture of corporate influence in Washington. In Lennar's then-regional vice president in charge of the San Francisco revitalization, Kofi Bonner in , was named as a Brookings senior fellow — a position as 'trusted adviser' that carries some distinction. Bruce Katz, a Brookings vice president, also offered to help Lennar Corporation "engage with national media to develop stories that highlight Lennar's innovative approach.

    Government think tanks are also important in the United States, particularly in the security and defense field. Army War College. FFRDCs, are unique independent nonprofit entities sponsored and funded by the United States government to meet specific long-term technical needs that cannot be met by any other single organization. FFRDCs typically assist government agencies with scientific research and analysis, systems development, and systems acquisition. They bring together the expertise and outlook of government, industry, and academia to solve complex technical problems.

    Similar to the above quasi-governmental organizations are Federal Advisory Committees. These groups, sometimes referred to as commissions, are a form of think tank dedicated to advising the US Presidents or the Executive branch of government. They typically focus on a specific issue and as such, might be considered similar to special interest groups.

    However, unlike special interest groups these committees have come under some oversight regulation and are required to make formal records available to the public.

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    Approximately 1, these advisory committees are described in the FACA searchable database. Research done by Enrique Mendizabal [87] shows that South American think tanks play various roles depending on their origins, historical development and relations to other policy actors. How a policy institute addresses these largely depends on how they work, their ideology vs. This functional method addresses the inherit challenge of defining a think tank.

    As Simon James said in , "Discussion of think tanks Then the shape of the organisation should follow to allow this to happen. First, policy institutes may work in or base their funding on one or more of: [90]. According to the National Institute for Research Advancement , a Japanese policy institute, think tanks are "one of the main policy actors in democratic societies Argentina is home to think tanks; many specializing in public policy and economics issues, Argentina ranks fifth in the number of these institutions worldwide.

    The Lessons of Mumbai (Occasional Paper (Rand Corporation)) The Lessons of Mumbai (Occasional Paper (Rand Corporation))
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