This generation of millimeter-wave and terahertz signals is transparent to modulation sources already being used in WDM optical communications systems. The researchers demonstrated the compatibility of their system with optical networks by using spectrally efficient optical Nyquist channels with a quadrature-phase-shift-keying QPSK modulation format, as used for commercial Gigabit Ethernet applications. For testing, a wireless propagation distance was fixed at 50 cm, with path loss of less than 2 dB achieved under optimum conditions.
Downconversion was to intermediate-frequency IF channels in the GHz band. Current limits in photodiode responsivity and terahertz-frequency amplifiers and antennas limit the practical application of such a system. However, as engineering efforts lead to more components at terahertz frequencies, this is an attractive communications system for short-distance, high-data-rate applications.
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More information about text formats. In particular, wireless data-rates have doubled every eighteen months over the last three decades and are quickly approaching the capacity of wired communication systems. Following this trend, wireless Terabit-per-second Tbps links are expected to become a reality in the next five to ten years.
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Terahertz Band 0. At the macroscale: Ultra-high-speed Cellular Networks: Terahertz Band communication can be used to provide Terabit-per-second Tbps links in next generation small cells, i. Some specific applications are ultra-high-definition multimedia content streaming to smartphones, or high-definition two-way video conferencing.
In addition, highly directional links in the Terahertz Band can be used to provide a wireless backhaul to current small cells. Specific applications include multimedia kiosks and ultra-highspeed data transfer between personal devices. For example, to transfer the equivalent content of a blueray disk to a tablet-like device or through Terahertz Band links could take less than 1 second with a 1 Tbps link. Secure Wireless Communication for Military and Defense Applications: The Terahertz Band can also enable ultrabroadband secure communication links in the military and defense fields.
The very high atmospheric attenuation at Terahertz Band frequencies and the use of very large antenna arrays to overcome the limited communication distance result in very narrow or almost razorsharp beams, which drastically limit the eavesdropping probability. Figure 1 - Ultra-high-speed Cellular Networks. At the nanoscale: Health Monitoring Systems: The nanoscale is the natural domain of molecules, proteins, DNA, organelles and the major components of cells.
For example, nanomaterial-based biological nanosensors can be deployed over e. A wireless interface between these nano-devices and a micro-device, such as a cellphone or medical equipment, could be used to collect data and to forward it to a healthcare provider Figure 2. Ultra-high-speed On-chip Communication: The Terahertz Band can provide ultra-high-speed, efficient and scalable means of intercore communication in wireless on-chip networks, by using planar nano-antennas.
This novel approach will expectedly fulfill the stringent requirements of the area-constraint and communication-intensive on-chip scenario by virtue of both its high bandwidth and extremely low area overhead. This makes Terahertz Band communication a promising technology to enable next-generation massive multicore architectures.
The Internet of Nano-things: The integration of nano-devices with communication capabilities in every single object will allow the interconnection of almost everything in our daily life, from cooking utensils to every element in our working place or also the components of every device with existing communication networks and ultimately Internet defines a truly cyber-physical system which we further refer to as the Internet of Nano-Things.
Figure 2 - Health Monitoring Systems. One of the most promising technology to enable Terahertz Band communication is the use of graphene, i.
System Combines Optical and Terahertz Signals at 400 GHz
Graphene has outstanding physical, electrical and optical properties, and it is often termed as "the wonder material" of the 21st century. Graphene and its derivatives, namely, carbon nanotubes CNTs and graphene nanoribbons GNRs , have been used to fabricate optical detectors for visible and infrared radiation which exhibit very fast response. However, emission and detection in the Terahertz Band by using graphene for communication is a emerging field of research for the time being.
In this project, we will develop a novel graphene-based plasmonic transceiver for Terahertz Band communication. Contrary to existing Terahertz Band signal emitters and detectors, our proposed transceivers are expected to be able to operate at room temperature without an external optical source for electron pumping and will be able to provide a high modulation bandwidth thanks to the unique behavior of electrons in graphene. In addition to the transceiver, ultra-broadband antennas are needed to support ultra-high-speed communication at Terahertz Band frequencies.
However, the efficiency of classical ultra-broadband antennas when operating at these high frequencies remains unknown. It is also not clear how these classical antennas could be integrated with the proposed graphene-based plasmonic transceivers, since the expectedly very high interconnection loss between a plasmonic transceiver and the antenna would drastically limit the feasibility of this approach. In this project, contrary to traditional antenna designs, we will explore novel graphene-based antennas for THz Band communication.
As we have recently shown, graphene can be used to build novel plasmonic nano-antennas see Figure 3 , which exploit the behavior of Surface Plasmon Polariton SPP waves in GNRs to efficiently radiate in the Terahertz Band. However, there are many challenges in the realization of such antennas.
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Amongst others, optimal antenna designs with maximal efficiency need to be investigated. In addition, antenna feeding mechanisms suited for graphene need to be designed.
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Ultimately, the join performance of the transceiver and the antenna will be analyzed. Moreover, in order to overcome the small gain and effective area of individual Terahertz Band antennas, we will investigate the performance of novel very large antenna arrays.
Indeed, the very small size of a THz Band antenna allows for the integration of a very large number of antennas with very small footprint. As part of the project, we will model the interaction and coupling effects among nearby antennas.
Moreover, by taking advantage of the possibility to tune each individual antenna response by means of electrostatic material doping, we will investigate radically new approaches for antenna arrays pattern synthesis. Existing channel models for lower frequency bands cannot be used in the Terahertz Band, because they do not capture the peculiarities of this spectrum band, e. The few Terahertz channel models existing to date are aimed at characterizing the communication in the absorption-defined window at 0.
However, a higher-frequency transmission window, or even more than one window at the same time over the entire Terahertz Band, will be needed to provide stable Tbps links.
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