Diseases of the Kidney and Urinary Tract


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A urinalysis, kidney biopsy, blood count and blood creatinine levels are taken to determine the disease. Limiting sodium in the diet and avoiding medicines that may have caused interstitial nephritis are ways to treat it.

Congenital Anomalies of the Kidneys and Urinary Tract | Children's Hospital of Philadelphia

IgA nephropathy, also known as Berger's disease , is caused by inflammation of the glomeruli. Blood and protein go into the urine due to waste filtration not functioning correctly. Symptoms include high blood pressure, blood in the urine, pain in the sides, edema and flu-like symptoms among other things. Urinalysis, blood tests and a kidney biopsy are the best ways to determine IgA nephropathy. It cannot be prevented and there is no cure, doctors can prescribe blood pressure medicine and vitamin E to lessen protein in the urine.

Kidneys and Urinary System

Pyelonephritis is a urinary tract infection that moves from the bladder and reaches the pyelum pelvis of the kidney, making it a form of nephritis. It's caused by kidney stones, infections in the bladder, catheter use to drain urine and defects in the urinary tract. Symptoms include blood and pus in the urine, pain during urination, pain in back and sides, and urgent or infrequent urination. An x-ray may be performed to see if there are any abnormalities of the kidney, bladder and ureters.


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Antibiotics and treatment of any underlying causes to prevent recurrence are required. Extreme cases may call for surgery. Inflammation can affect other organs besides the kidneys as part of an autoimmune disorder, a disease in which your body makes the wrong immune response against the tissues in your body. Inflammation of the heart, lungs and large intestine are considered autoimmune disorders, along with inflammation of the kidneys.

Kidney Disease: What You Should Know - UCLAMDCHAT Webinars

Lupus nephritis is an inflammatory disease that causes the immune system to attack different parts of the body, such as the kidneys, heart, lungs, skin, joints, nervous system and blood vessels. The exact cause is unknown, but gender, heredity, viruses, infections and environmental reasons may play a role. Symptoms range from swelling of the legs and arms to hypertension and dark urine. Urine, blood tests and a kidney biopsy are used to detect lupus nephritis. Your doctor may have you talk to your dietitian about lowering certain minerals in your diet. The severity of the symptoms determines which medicines your doctor gives you.

Another autoimmune disorder related to CKD and inflammation is Goodpasture's syndrome. This rare disease attacks both the kidneys and lungs, eventually leading to kidney failure and lung disease. Subtle symptoms include coughing up blood, fatigue, trouble breathing and nausea. A blood test can be done by your doctor to see if you have it. Bleeding of the lungs can last from two weeks to two years, depending on the severity of the disease, likely leading to permanent kidney damage.

What are congenital anomalies of the kidneys and urinary tract?

Wegener's granulomatosis affects kidneys, as well as the upper respiratory tract and lungs. Like lupus, the disease can attack your nervous system, heart, skin and joints, in addition to your eyes and ears, and the causes are unknown. Symptoms include constant runny nose, eye redness and irritation, coughing up blood, fatigue, joint pain and ear infection.

The doctor will do a blood test that can detect certain proteins in your blood.

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Contact Us. Request an Appointment. Types of congenital kidney and urinary tract anomaly Anomalies can be found in each part of the urinary tract. One kidney may be missing renal agenesis. One or both kidneys may be abnormally small renal hypoplasia. One or both kidneys may have formed abnormally renal dysplasia. The kidneys may be joined to form a single arched or horseshoe kidney.

The kidneys may be in the wrong position. One or both kidneys may have fluid-filled cysts polycystic kidney disease or multicystic kidney disease. A blockage may occur in the area where the kidney attaches to the ureter ureteropelvic junction obstruction.

A blockage may occur in the area where the ureter attaches to the bladder ureterovesical junction obstruction or ureterocele. The ureters may attach to the bladder in a way that allows urine to flow back up to the kidney vesicoureteral reflux. A single kidney may drain to the bladder with two ureters instead of one. Extra flaps of tissue may develop in the urethra, slowing or blocking the flow of urine out of the bladder urethral valves.

What is a Urinary Tract Infection (UTI) in Children?

If a kidney or urinary tract anomaly is not detected before birth in an ultrasound, signs of the problem in infancy or childhood may include: Urinary tract infections sometimes noticed as unexplained fevers Swollen belly from the bladder not emptying Swelling of the hands or feet or in the face around the eyes Nausea and vomiting Loss of appetite Unusual tiredness or lack of energy Poor growth.

In other cases, treatment ranging from medication to surgery may be needed to maintain health. When vesicoureteral reflux is found, treatment may include: Antibiotics to prevent urinary tract infections, which, with urine backflow, might otherwise spread to the kidneys and the bloodstream Surgery to reattach the ureter to the bladder, creating an opening that closes when the bladder is full, or other procedures to help prevent reflux In cases of severe ureter or urethra blockage, treatment may include: Surgery to remove the blockage When congenital anomalies of the kidneys and urinary tract are not detected early, or in cases when treatment is unable to prevent serious damage to the kidneys, kidney failure may require treatment with: Dialysis Kidney transplantation.

The frequency of that ongoing care and monitoring will vary greatly case by case. The center part of the kidney, the medulla meh-DUH-luh , has fan-shaped structures called pyramids. These drain urine into cup-shaped tubes called calyxes KAY-luh-seez. From the calyxes, pee travels out of the kidneys through the ureters YUR-uh-ters to be stored in the bladder a muscular sac in the lower belly.

When a person urinates, the pee exits the bladder and goes out of the body through the urethra yoo-REE-thruh , another tube-like structure.


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  • The male urethra ends at the tip of the penis; the female urethra ends just above the vaginal opening. Kidneys have many jobs, from filtering blood and making urine to keeping bones healthy and making a hormone that controls the production of red blood cells. The kidneys also help regulate blood pressure, the level of salts in the blood, and the acid-base balance the pH of the blood. All these jobs make the kidneys essential to keeping the body working as it should.

    Blood travels to each kidney through the renal artery. The artery enters the kidney at the hilus HY-luss , the indentation in middle of the kidney that gives it its bean shape.

    Diseases of the Kidney and Urinary Tract Diseases of the Kidney and Urinary Tract
    Diseases of the Kidney and Urinary Tract Diseases of the Kidney and Urinary Tract
    Diseases of the Kidney and Urinary Tract Diseases of the Kidney and Urinary Tract
    Diseases of the Kidney and Urinary Tract Diseases of the Kidney and Urinary Tract
    Diseases of the Kidney and Urinary Tract Diseases of the Kidney and Urinary Tract
    Diseases of the Kidney and Urinary Tract Diseases of the Kidney and Urinary Tract
    Diseases of the Kidney and Urinary Tract Diseases of the Kidney and Urinary Tract

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