The record is made on the contract documents — usually, but not necessarily limited to, the design drawings. The end product of this effort is what the industry terms as-built drawings, or more simply, "as built.
Project management - Wikipedia
Construction document management is a highly important task undertaken with the aid of an online or desktop software system, or maintained through physical documentation. The increasing legality pertaining to the construction industry's maintenance of correct documentation has caused the increase in the need for document management systems.
When changes are introduced to the project, the viability of the project has to be re-assessed. It is important not to lose sight of the initial goals and targets of the projects. When the changes accumulate, the forecasted result may not justify the original proposed investment in the project. Successful project management identifies these components, and tracks and monitors progress so as to stay within time and budget frames already outlined at the commencement of the project.
Closing includes the formal acceptance of the project and the ending thereof. Administrative activities include the archiving of the files and documenting lessons learned. This phase consists of: . Also included in this phase is the Post Implementation Review.
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This is a vital phase of the project for the project team to learn from experiences and apply to future projects. Normally a Post Implementation Review consists of looking at things that went well and analyzing things that went badly on the project to come up with lessons learned. Project controlling also known as Cost Engineering should be established as an independent function in project management. It implements verification and controlling function during the processing of a project to reinforce the defined performance and formal goals.
Fulfillment and implementation of these tasks can be achieved by applying specific methods and instruments of project controlling. The following methods of project controlling can be applied:. Project control is that element of a project that keeps it on track, on-time and within budget. Projects may be audited or reviewed while the project is in progress. Formal audits are generally risk or compliance-based and management will direct the objectives of the audit. An examination may include a comparison of approved project management processes with how the project is actually being managed.
If project control is not implemented correctly, the cost to the business should be clarified in terms of errors and fixes. Control systems are needed for cost, risk , quality, communication, time, change, procurement, and human resources. In addition, auditors should consider how important the projects are to the financial statements , how reliant the stakeholders are on controls, and how many controls exist. Auditors should review the development process and procedures for how they are implemented.
The process of development and the quality of the final product may also be assessed if needed or requested. A business may want the auditing firm to be involved throughout the process to catch problems earlier on so that they can be fixed more easily. An auditor can serve as a controls consultant as part of the development team or as an independent auditor as part of an audit.
Businesses sometimes use formal systems development processes. These help assure systems are developed successfully. A formal process is more effective in creating strong controls, and auditors should review this process to confirm that it is well designed and is followed in practice. A good formal systems development plan outlines:. There are five important characteristics of a project.
Complexity and its nature plays an important role in the area of project management. Despite having number of debates on this subject matter, studies suggest lack of definition and reasonable understanding of complexity in relation to management of complex projects. By applying the discovery in measuring work complexity described in Requisite Organization and Stratified Systems Theory, Dr Elliott Jaques classifies projects and project work stages, tasks into basic 7 levels of project complexity based on such criteria as time-span of discretion and complexity of a project's output:  .
Benefits from measuring Project Complexity is to improve project people feasibility by: . A project manager is a professional in the field of project management. Project managers are in charge of the people in a project. People are the key to any successful project. Without the correct people in the right place and at the right time a project cannot be successful. Project managers can have the responsibility of the planning, execution, controlling, and closing of any project typically relating to the construction industry , engineering, architecture, computing , and telecommunications.
Many other fields of production engineering, design engineering, and heavy industrial have project managers. A project manager needs to understand the order of execution of a project to schedule the project correctly as well as the time necessary to accomplish each individual task within the project. A project manager is the person accountable for accomplishing the stated project objectives. A project manager is required to know the project in and out while supervising the workers along with the project. Typically in most construction, engineering, architecture and industrial projects, a project manager has another manager working alongside of them who is typically responsible for the execution of task on a daily basis.
This position in some cases is known as a superintendent. A superintendent and project manager work hand in hand in completing daily project task. Key project management responsibilities include creating clear and attainable project objectives, building the project requirements, and managing the triple constraint now including more constraints and calling it competing constraints for projects, which is cost, time, and scope for the first three but about three additional ones in current project management.
A typical project is composed of a team of workers who work under the project manager to complete the assignment. A project manager normally reports directly to someone of higher stature on the completion and success of the project. A project manager is often a client representative and has to determine and implement the exact needs of the client, based on knowledge of the firm they are representing.
The ability to adapt to the various internal procedures of the contracting party, and to form close links with the nominated representatives, is essential in ensuring that the key issues of cost, time, quality and above all, client satisfaction, can be realized. There is a tendency to confuse the project success with project management success. They are two different things. Project management success criteria is different from project success criteria. The project management is said to be successful if the given project is completed within the agreed upon time, met the agreed upon scope and within the agreed upon budget.
Meanwhile, a project is said to be successful, when it succeeds in achieving the expected business case. The United States Department of Defense states; "Cost, Schedule, Performance, and Risk" are the four elements through which Department of Defense acquisition professionals make trade-offs and track program status. Risk management applies proactive identification see tools of future problems and understanding of their consequences allowing predictive decisions about projects. A WBS can be developed by starting with the end objective and successively subdividing it into manageable components in terms of size, duration , and responsibility e.
The work breakdown structure provides a common framework for the natural development of the overall planning and control of a contract and is the basis for dividing work into definable increments from which the statement of work can be developed and technical, schedule, cost, and labor hour reporting can be established.
It is an essential element in assessing the quality of a plan, and an initial element used during the planning of the project.
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For example, a WBS is used when the project is scheduled, so that the use of work packages can be recorded and tracked. An increasing number of organizations are using what is referred to as project portfolio management PPM as a means of selecting the right projects and then using project management techniques  as the means for delivering the outcomes in the form of benefits to the performing private or not-for-profit organization.
Project management software is software used to help plan, organize, and manage resource pools, develop resource estimates and implement plans. Virtual program management VPM is management of a project done by a virtual team , though it rarely may refer to a project implementing a virtual environment  It is noted that managing a virtual project is fundamentally different from managing traditional projects,  combining concerns of telecommuting and global collaboration culture, timezones, language.
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Main article: Benefits realisation management. Main article: Critical chain project management. Main article: Earned value management. See also: Iterative and incremental development. Main article: Lean project management. Main article: Process-based management.
Main article: Project production management. Main article: Product-based planning. Main article: Project risk management. Main article: Work breakdown structure.
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Main article: Project portfolio management. Main articles: Project management software and Project management information system. Main article: Virtual team. Related fields Architectural engineering Construction management Cost engineering Facilitation business Industrial engineering Project Production Management Project management software Project portfolio management Project workforce management Software project management Systems engineering Agile Construction Related subjects Collaborative project management Decision-making Earned value management Human factors Kanban development Operations research Process architecture Project accounting Project governance Program management Project management simulation Small-scale project management Software development process Systems Development Life Cycle SDLC Lists Comparison of project management software Glossary of project management List of collaborative software List of project management topics Timeline of project management.
McGraw-Hill Professional, Nokes, Sebastian. Project Management Institute. Retrieved Dinsmore et al The right projects done right!
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